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Most scholars believe that a civilization does not occur until ceramic pottery comes into use.
They also believe that one of the main criteria for a civilization is that it have developed arts. In Peru, we find pre-ceramic civilizations that developed arts. These early people constructed the largest architectural monuments in the hemisphere. Here, near the Peruvian coastline, they constructed huge ceremonial centers.
These pre-ceramic people worked with a variety of media including: Textiles were The ceramics of the moche in these early societies, and much time was devoted to weaving. Stripes, diamonds squares, chevrons, two headed serpents, crabs, fish, and birds were popular textile designs.
Also, these early people painted their elaborate ceremonial centers in rich polychrome paints. This included painted faces on large ceremonial mounds. Three pre-Incan cultures from the Lake Titicaca Basin had a profound effect on the development of future Incan artist media and styles.
The Chiripa culture existed between and BC. On the Bolivian side of the lake they developed sophisticated ceramic styles that included: The Chiripa potters also produced ceramic trumpets.
The trumpets are some of the earliest known instruments found in the Western Hemisphere. These people also worked with copper, tin, and brass. The Pukara culture was located 65 miles northwest of Lake Titicaca.
It emerged around BC. The Pukara ceramics were highly sophisticated, passing through several stages of development.
The vessels were slip-painted in red, yellow, and black, and decorated in pictures of birds, llamas, cats, and humans. They also developed a ceramic trumpet and drinking vessels with beakers. The Pukara were also excellent sculptors. They created both full round and flat relief stelae type carvings on stone slabs.
Full round sculptures usually were of realistic human origin, while the stelae were of cats, serpents, lizards, fish, and people.
The Tuahuanaco or Tiwanaku culture developed 12 miles southeast of Lake Titicaca. This culture lasted for more than years before it ended around AD. It had more direct influence on the Inca Civilization than any other. These people were very technologically advanced.
They worked intricately with textiles, ornate wood carvings, and gold jewelry. They also created amazing stone carvings. Artist and craftsmen were held in high esteem by Inca royalty.
These specialists were recruited by the thousands to work as metal smiths, jewelers, ceramicists, and textiles. Artisans were important because the ancient Incas used textiles and jewelry as currency. Here artisans were so valuable that they were allowed to wear ear spools which was a privilege otherwise reserved for the Inca elite.
The great art styles of the Andes are referred to as government or corporate art styles. This is because the ancient Inca used textiles and art work as currency. This placed artisans in direct service of the state. Artisans and craftsmen were subsidized by the government and the nature of their work was dictated by the Incan royal family.
It was the great Incan ruler Pachacuti who fostered the idea of royal government and religious design motifs and iconography. It was not easy turning peasants into skilled artisans. The rulers of Cuzco turned toward the city-state of Chimor to fill this need.
The lords of Chimor had subsidized legions of metallurgists in an attempt to monopolize the production and circulation of gold and silver.
Next, the Incas would conquer the ancient city of Lambayeque and resettled tens of thousand of artist and craftsmen to the city of Chan Chan so that they could directly serve the Inca rulers. Almost all of this beautiful work created by the metallurgists was melted by the Spanish Conquistadors.Pre-Columbian civilizations - Andean civilization: For several thousand years before the Spanish invasion of Peru in , a wide variety of high mountain and desert coastal kingdoms developed in western South America.
The extraordinary artistic and technological achievements of these people, along with their historical continuity across centuries, have encouraged modern observers to refer to. The Mochica society was established in hierarchies, that was also reflected in their ancients ceramics or “huacos.
The Moche were obviously warriors, as shown by the fight scenes in the decorations of the vases and sculptural representations. The Moche art style is one of the most representational, non-abstract styles of art in the ancient Andes, and this is most easily seen in their spectacular ceramics, which makes use of fine-line painting, fully modelled clay, naturalistic figures, and stirrup spouts, to represent social activities, war, metalwork, weaving, and sex.
The Moche, who lived from to AD—pre-dating the more celebrated Inca— sculpted tens of thousands of ceramics, an estimated , of which remain.
Of those, at least are pots. THE MOCHE WARRIOR is the third entry in Lyn Hamilton's Lara McClintoch series. I read the first two, THE XIBALBA MURDERS and THE MALTESE GODDESS, several years ago. Two chambers discovered in Peru may reveal new insights about the political rituals of the ancient Moche civilization, which ruled on the country’s desert coast around 1, years ago.