Natasha Tracy The definition of drug addiction refers to the obsessive and repeated use of dangerous amounts of drugs and the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when not using drugs. The effects of drug addiction seen, due to this compulsion, are wide-ranging and profound. Effects of drug addiction are felt by the addict both physically and psychologically.
Behavioral addiction The term behavioral addiction refers to a compulsion to engage in a natural reward — which is a behavior that is inherently rewarding i. There is evidence from functional neuroimaging that gambling activates the reward system and the mesolimbic pathway in particular.
Addiction vulnerability There are a number of genetic and environmental risk factors for developing an addiction that vary across the population. For example, altered levels of a normal protein due to environmental factors could then change the structure or functioning of specific brain neurons during development.
These altered brain neurons could change the susceptibility of an individual to an initial drug use experience. In support of this hypothesis, animal studies have shown that environmental factors such as stress can affect an animal's genotype.
One reason for this may be that the case is due to a focus of current research on common variants. These studies employ an unbiased approach to finding genetic associations with specific phenotypes and give equal weight to all regions of DNA, including those with no ostensible relationship to drug metabolism or response.
These studies rarely identify genes from proteins previously described via animal knockout models and candidate gene analysis. Instead, large percentages of genes involved in processes such as cell adhesion are commonly identified.
This is not to say that previous findings, or the GWAS findings, are erroneous. The important effects of endophenotypes are typically not capable of being captured by these methods. Furthermore, genes identified in GWAS for drug addiction may be involved either in adjusting brain behavior prior to drug experiences, subsequent to them, or both.
Twins have similar and sometimes identical genetics. Analyzing these genes in relation to genetics has helped geneticists understand how much of a role genes play in addiction.
Studies performed on twins found that rarely did only one twin have an addiction. In most cases where at least one twin suffered from an addiction, both did, and often to the same substance.
If one family member has a history of addiction, the chances of a relative or close family developing those same habits are much higher than one who has not been introduced to addiction at a young age. In72, overdose deaths happened in the U.
The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has shown a strong dose—response relationship between ACEs and numerous health, social, and behavioral problems throughout a person's lifespan, including those associated with substance abuse.
As a result, the child's cognitive functioning or ability to cope with negative or disruptive emotions may be impaired. Over time, the child may adopt substance use as a coping mechanism, particularly during adolescence.
Family conflict and home management is also a cause for one to become engaged in drug or alcohol use. This consequentially grants the incentive—rewards systems a disproportionate amount of power in the behavioral decision-making process.
Therefore, adolescents are increasingly likely to act on their impulses and engage in risky, potentially addicting behavior before considering the consequences. As for alcohol abuse or dependence, the numbers start off high with those who first drank before they were 12 and then drop off after that.
This percentage is even lower, at 2.I believe that broadcasting agencies, and therefore the people behind them, are fully aware of the deeper, more widespread psychological effects of negative, sensationalist reporting. Treatment of internet addiction: A meta-analysis.
we reviewed treatment studies examining the effects of psychological or pharmacological interventions on internet addiction symptoms, time spent online, depression and anxiety.
K.S. YoungEvaluation and treatment of internet addiction. Innovations in clinical practice: A source book. effects of EFT on psychological distress symptoms in a sample of persons with self-identified addiction issues, some of whom were also addiction treatment practitioners.
upon the nonmedical use of narcotics as upon the nature and effects of narcotics or SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS The nature of available data on drug addicts precludes any analysis of rates of addiction for regions or states. The Public Health Service hospitals at Lexington, Kentucky, and Fort Worth, Texas, receive addicts from all.
amount of knowledge on addiction, effects of addiction, and medication used to treat addiction. Reviewing the literature explains the definition of addiction, whether it is a choice or compulsion, and specific medications used to treat dependence. Studies of the effects of substance use and abuse on relationships and of relationships The sociology of addiction also includes the study of the use of substances such as marihuana (Becker, ) and the hallucinogens (Aaronson and Osmond, ) that do “close analysis.